移居者 The Immigrant

地點: 新竹市美術館 時間: 2018.2.09(五)-4.29(日) 09:00-17:00(週一休館)

風城名品|米粉

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米粉的起源 據新竹市誌記載,相傳五胡亂華漢人南遷,吃慣麵條的華北人仍以稻米榨條為食,即今日的「水粉」米粉。

新竹米粉 清領末期「水粉」由福建一帶傳入台灣,廣受喜愛、是當年宴客的高級食品,遂成當時農民的重要副業。
日治時期,米粉車引進柴油發動機及馬達動力,米粉商研遂發「炊粉」技術,很快地成為新竹米粉的主流。
客雅溪一帶溪埔地形平坦寬闊,配合秋冬強勁乾燥的九降風,構築得天獨厚的自然風乾環境,使得沿岸大南勢聚落成為米粉製造的最佳地區,曾聚集一百多家米粉工廠。

水粉和炊粉 米粉生產包含洗浸、磨漿、壓乾、糊化、蒸煮、攪拌、壓絲及風乾等工序:浸過的米磨成漿後壓乾,再經揉成粿糰蒸煮,接著依據水粉和炊粉之別放入米粉車壓絲,最後曝曬、風乾。
粗米粉汆燙後泡水冷卻,溼答答的故曰「水粉」。水粉濕度高、易沾黏,自然風乾約6至8小時,風乾時需定時翻轉竹箳並搓鬆米粉。水粉烹煮易斷裂,多用於米粉湯等料理。
細米粉以蒸籠蒸三分熟,即閩南語的「炊」,故得名「炊粉」。炊粉濕度低,自然風乾僅約需3小時,風乾過程亦不需加工。炊粉烹調容易,是目前新竹主要生產的米粉類型,多用於炒米粉等料理。

米粉原料的演進 民國六十年,台灣以國內生產的稻米與南非交換其主食玉米製成的玉米粉,一時稻米供應短缺、玉米粉進口量遽增,糧食局因此提供玉米粉給米粉商,米粉業者始研發玉米粉調和米漿的技法。
玉米糯值高、不易吸水,製作之米粉富彈性、廣受市場歡迎,玉米粉占比50%至99%的調和米粉遂逐漸成為米粉的主流。

純米製造 近年許多製作新竹米粉的品牌紛紛改為全米製作。純米漿生產的米粉容易吸水,需要額外加工以便料理,而今多數消費者仍偏好含有玉米粉的米粉。

The Origin of Rice Noodles It is said that during the Uprising of the Five Barbarians, the Han Chinese migrated to southern China. To stick with their staple food, they used rice to make noodles, which became the origin of the earliest rice noodles, also called Shuǐ Fěn.

Hsinchu Rice Noodles In the end of the Qing Dynasty Rule, introduced to Taiwan from Fujian, rice noodles were a popular dish in banquets. Thus, farmers began to produce rice noodles during their breaks.
During the Japanese Rule, diesel machine and electric motor were brought in, allowing the merchants to develop techniques for producing thinner rice noodles, also called Chuī Fěn, which became the mainstream of Hsinchu rice noodles.
The flat and broad Keya Riverside and the powerful dry winter wind construct a gifted environment for drying rice noodles, attracting around a hundred rice noodle factories in the district.

Shuǐ Fěn And Chuī Fěn The producing process of rice noodle consists of washing rice, grinding rice, making dough, cooking dough, making thick or thin rice noodles, drying rice noodles, etc.
Thick rice noodles are boiled and cooled in water, named Shuǐ Fěn after its wetness, meaning watery noodles. Shuǐ Fěn is so sticky that it takes about 6 to 8 hours and extra care for it to dry. Due to its easily breaking texture, Shuǐ Fěn is mostly cooked as rice noodle soup.
Thin rice noodles are steamed, or “Chuī” in Taiwanese, called Chuī Fěn accordingly. It takes only around 3 hours to dry Chuī Fěn due to its low moisture. Chuī Fěn is the main production of Hsinchu rice noodles because it can be cooked easily. It is usually cooked as fried rice noodles.

The Development of Ingredients In 1971, when Taiwan traded rice for corn starch with South Africa, the domestic supply of rice declined as the import of corn starch soared. Thus, corn starch was provided to the rice noodle merchants, who began developing techniques of corn starch and rice flour blend.
As corn starch hardly absorb water, rice noodles made of rice and corn starch blend has the popular chewy texture, thus becoming the mainstream on the market.

Made Of 100% Rice In recent years, many Hsinchu rice noodle brands have begun to produce rice noodles with 100% rice. As rice absorbs water easily, extra procedures are required. Nowadays, most customers still prefer rice noodles with corn starch.

資料來源:
新竹米粉商業同業公會蔡勝興總幹事
洪惠冠編。《新竹米粉產業史》,新竹市:新竹市文化中心,1998年3月

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